Recognizing that a Treaty for the Middle East could no longer be postponed, Britain met with France in San Remo, Italy, in April 1920 to reach agreement on their points of difference. This paved the way for a peace settlement with the Ottoman Empire – and the Treaty of Sèvres was signed on August 10, 1920. Eighty-five years ago today, European diplomats gathered in a porcelain factory in the Paris suburb of Sèvres and signed a treaty to reshape the Middle East from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire. The plan collapsed so quickly that we hardly remember it, but the short-lived Sèvres Treaty, nothing less than the Sykes-Picot agreement, which was the subject of endless debate, had consequences that are still visible today. We would do well to consider some of them, because the anniversary of this forgotten treaty passes in silence and silence. The Treaty of Sèvres imposed much stricter conditions on the Ottoman Empire than those imposed on the German Empire by the Treaty of Versailles.   As early as 1915, France, Italy and Britain had begun to secretly plan the partition of the Ottoman Empire. Open negotiations lasted more than 15 months, began at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, continued at the London Conference in February 1920, and did not take shape until after the San Remo Conference in April 1920. This delay occurred because the powers did not reach an agreement, which in turn depended on the outcome of the Turkish national movement.
The Treaty of Sèvres was never ratified and, after Turkey`s War of Independence, most of the signatories to the Treaty of Sèvres signed and ratified the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and 1924. This crucial period in Turkish history confirms a fundamental principle of international politics, namely that facts mark peace agreements on the ground. The Turkish War of Independence changed these facts on the ground, called the Treaty of Sevres and led to peace in Lausanne. In return, Turkey renounced all claims to former Turkish territories outside its new borders and pledged to guarantee the rights of its minorities. A separate agreement between Greece and Turkey provided for the compulsory exchange of minorities. Sections of the treaty relating to Armenia and the Armenian Genocide will be presented. The full text of the treatise is available in brigham Young University`s First World War Documentary Archive. . . .